Debt instrument : A written promise to repay a debt.The document that serves as a legally enforceable evidence of a debt and the promise of its timely repayment
Ex:Bonds,bills of exchange,promissory notes.
Portfolio : A collection of investments owned by the same individual or organization.
Will : legal declaration of how a person wish his/her possession to be disposed after their death
Fund : An amount of money saved or collected for a particular purpose
Return : Profit or loss derived from an investment
Investor : An investor is any party that makes an investment.
IA market condition where prices of the securities are falling, generally greater than or equal to 20% in a period of 2 months.
It is Total Assets of a person at the given point of time. That is buildings, investments and other assets s/he is having. Benefits will be enjoyed by his heirs after his death through his will.
A set of assets which an investor holds. This may contain equities, mutual funds, insurance and other cash equivalents.
Wealth is accumulation of resources or as on date value of assets a person own. Commonly Net worth is the measure of Wealth of an individual.
Liquidity or marketability is the ability to convert an asset in to cash quickly.
Investing your money and dealing with the associated risks is a great challenge that every investor must accept in order to reap higher returns.
Market investments are subject to risk (though the intensity differs from product to product). Business supplements and magazines generally print the stories of hapless investors who either lost their money in shares, bonds or mutual funds or whose fund is stuck in the fraudulent moneymaking schemes. It is important for investors to identify the risk and take essential steps to minimize it.
In order to key out and minimize the risks it is vital to know the type of risks applicable to investments. For better understanding, here is the list of different investment risk types. Take a glance:
This risk is associated with the movement in the prices of stock that commonly affects the market as a whole. There are many factors that cause market fluctuation, and natural calamity is one of them. Other factors are the phase of the market – bull or bear. The rising and falling prices of the stocks and bonds determine profit and loss of the investors. If the market is in its bear phase, the downside risk is comparatively low and on the contrary if it is in bull phase the downside risk is more as the market can crash anytime.
Socio Political Risk
Change in government policy, political unrest, international issues (war), elections and change of the government are some of the important elements that affect the market stability. This instability may impose a huge risk on your money/investment.
According to a well-known fact, money has bounded or no value if it is not available when you need it. The ready availability of money is known as liquidity. A successful investment is one that is not only profitable, but also readily liquid. For instance: If you have cash, you can buy anything anytime. But if you have an asset, which cannot be sold in the market due to a justified reason, it is of no use.
Remember, an asset is of a great value only if it can be converted into cash quickly, with little loss. It is good to invest in assets that are reasonably liquid. Otherwise your investment is at a huge risk.
The market value of your shares depends upon the performance of that stock in the market. If you have invested in the company that unfortunately isn’t doing well, the market value of that investment will rapidly go down. When you invest in any company or enterprise, there are chances you may suffer loss or face bankruptcy. The risk associated with such investments may be little or in some cases very high. One common way to avoid such risks is to create a diversified portfolio.
The father of all, this risk refers to non-payment of interest and principal amount. This risk is particularly very high because of the investment in unsecured product, therefore no security is attached. In this case you can do nothing but end up filing a court case. It is good to refer the credit rating of a company before investing in it rather than regretting later.
Interest Rate Risk
Fluctuation in interest rate affects the fixed-rate securities and largely affects the value and returns of your investment. Whenever investors are buying a fixed-rate debt instrument they are exposing themselves to interest rate risk. For better understanding, listed below is an example.
If you have invested in a fixed-rate instrument for 5 years with the interest rate of 9% annually, and if the interest rate goes up to 10% the value of your security won’t go up. Because of the lower yield of the earlier instrument, the value of security comes down and trades at a discount in the market. Therefore, interest rate fluctuations impose huge risk on the investor.
Exchange Rate Risk
It arises due to the change in the price of one currency against another. These risks are mainly faced by companies that have exposure abroad or involved in international dealings. Currently, India is under huge exchange rate risk
How to Handle Risks?
When it comes to tackling the investment risks, it is important to make note of two things:
- 1. Not all risks may be applied to a single investment product
2. At times different types of risks are interlinked.
The presence of all these risks should not demotivate you from investing. Also, the presence of risk does not mean an investment is bad. In fact, investments with higher risk generally fetch good returns. No risk, no returns!
The journey towards wealth accumulation to be easy for you, it is recommended to have a personalized financial plan.