Portfolio : A collection of investments owned by the same individual or organization.
Will : legal declaration of how a person wish his/her possession to be disposed after their death
Fund : An amount of money saved or collected for a particular purpose
Return : Profit or loss derived from an investment
Investor : An investor is any party that makes an investment.
Warren Buffet : Buffett is a value investor. His company Berkshire Hathaway is basically a holding company for his investments. Major holdings he has had at some point include Coca-Cola, American Express and Gillette. Critics predicted an end to his success when his conservative investing style meant missing out on the dotcom bull market. Of course, he had the last laugh after the dotcom crash because, once again, Buffett's time tested strategy proved successful.
Benjamin graham : A scholar and financial analyst who is widely recognized as the father of value investing. His famous book, The Intelligent Investor, has gained recognition as one of the best and most important investment pieces written illustrating the fundamentals of a value-investing strategy.
It’s the average of several of stocks in the market. It represents the market as a whole or as a part of the market.
It is a technique where an investor invests in a particular stock/mutual fund at different market conditions. Invested money will be average out as the investor would have invested in the same share at various times at various prices.
In Mutual Fund, Net Asset Value is the price per unit of the fund. This is similar to Price of a share.
A set of assets which an investor holds. This may contain equities, mutual funds, insurance and other cash equivalents.
Liquidity or marketability is the ability to convert an asset in to cash quickly.
I do not know what kind of shoes Warren Buffet wore. However, I am sure that a lot of people would definitely want to be in his shoes. I am not in a position to promise his shoes to the readers, what I can do is share a few timeless investment principles which if followed, will surely give the investor a firm standing, as firm as Buffet’s, no less.
Warren Buffet owed his financial grooming to his mentor and teacher, Benjamin Graham. Concepts like security analysis and value investing acquired a new dimension under Benjamin Graham. Benjamin Graham's timeless books on investments – Security Analysis (1934) and The Intelligent Investor (1949) provide an insight into the realms of investment dynamics. In the following paragraphs the essence of Benjamin Graham's investment teachings are laid out for the modern day investor to reap its benefits.
Principle I: Invest with a Margin of Safety
Better be safe than sorry. In financial-investment parlance, ‘margin of safety’ signifies buying of securities at a discount to its actual worth or ‘intrinsic value’. This practice not only acts as a shield for the investor, but also provides high-return opportunities.
Benjamin Graham favored such assets due to their immense potential for generating stable earnings and also the overall simplicity in providing liquidity. He consistently advocated the purchase of stocks of companies whose liquid assets depicted on the balance sheet (net of all debts or “net nets”) were worth far more than the company’s market cap. In simple terms what this means the ability to buy businesses at rock bottom prices.
The basic advantage of adhering to this investment principle of Benjamin Graham is that the investment is likely to turn in profits when the market correction of the stock price occurs and it inevitably reverts to its fair value. One of the other essential advantages of buying a stock with a margin-of safety is that the chance of further slide in the price of the stock is usually unlikely.
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Benjamin Graham’s idea on the margin-of-safety acted as a safety net for a lot of his followers and investors can easily be in a win-win situation by following this principle.
Principle II: Use Volatility to earn profits
An average person will seek the nearest exit-way when his investments are hit by market down-turn. A smart investor will view the down-turn as a turn-around opportunity to make profits.
Graham used an interesting analogy to explain his point; an imaginary business partner, of every investor, referred to as “Mr. Market”. Based on Mr. Market’s assessment of business prospects he is expected to charge a high price when the business is expected to be buoyant and vice-versa when the prospects are not encouraging.
The stock market exhibits the same kind of reaction and for a prudent investor the emotions of Mr. Market are not going to hold sway on his investment decision. Instead his decisions will be driven by hard facts and proper market trend evaluation. The primal truth remains that investors need to buy low and sell high. Volatility is the inherent nature of the financial market and is just as natural as thunderstorms during monsoon. Gearing to combat such situations is the hallmark of a good investment decision.
Benjamin Graham suggested two sub-strategies to combat such volatility. His dictum has been modified to match the Indian context:
i. Rupee Cost Averaging: A systematic investment plan or an SIP is an ideal choice for investing fixed amounts at regular intervals so that the investor does not have to buy at a high, in effect the total investment averages out on the basis of the stock price or mutual fund NAV. This technique is ideal for those who are not too keen to follow the market on a regular basis or are passive investors by nature.
ii. Investing in stock and bonds: A balanced approach is what is recommended as an ideal investment option. Dividing one’s portfolio equally between stocks and bonds is what Graham advocates. Preserve the capital and then aim for growth is the philosophy behind this investment mantra. Such a balanced approach will also ensure that the investor is not tempted to speculate.
Principle III: Be aware of your investment self
Benjamin Graham urges investors to introspect and be aware of the type of investor personality category he or she belongs to. According to Benjamin Graham, investors basically belong to either of two categories: “enterprising investor” or “defensive investor”. The first one has a dashing investment persona and the later a more cautious persona. He felt that investment returns are based more on the “work” element than the “risk” element.
People who are prepared to work hard and study the fundamentals of the market can gain more than the one who is prepared to put in much less work while making his investments. It is a natural corollary that the hard worker will reap bigger gains than the other category of investors.
The enterprising investor will invest in stocks while defensive or cautious investor will opt for investment in index funds . Graham also differentiates between an investor and a speculator; the former views his stocks as part of business while the later views it as an expensive paper. One should have the ability to realize whether he is an intelligent speculator or an intelligent investor.
Benjamin Graham’s approach is methodical and views the stock market as a scientific field which is driven by a set of rules. Following Benjamin Graham’s investment principle will guarantee that the stock market is a level playing field and not one with hidden land-mines.
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